School Culture: The Principal's Greatest Responsibility

By Lloyd Knight

Lloyd Knight is the Principal at Charter Schools USA, Thomas Carr Howe Community High School in Indianapolis, Indiana.  Mr. Knight began his career as a student teacher and has worked at every level including curriculum resource teacher, classroom teacher, and assistant principal. Before moving to Indianapolis, he was the lead principal of North Carolina for Charter Schools USA, he spearheaded the expansion of five new buildings and the largest portfolio of charter schools in the state of North Carolina.Mr. Knight is a trained peacekeeper, holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in elementary education from Shaw University in North Carolina, and earned his Master of Arts degree in Education Leadership from DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Knight is also a proud member of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity Incorporated, a public service organization founded in 1911.

As a school leader, I have many conversations with principals during this time of year.  One question keeps entering my mind.  'What does it mean to be a student at your school?'  The questions can be considered the foundation of a positive school culture.  Of course, we must begin first with our students.  The key to building an amazing school culture is to define what it is that all of are stakeholders are supposed to be.

What should are students look like? How should they speak to one another?  

For students, this should be spelled out explicitly and taught over the first two weeks of school.  At CICS Lloyd Bond we focused on the CARRES model.  Cooperation, Assertion, Respect, Responsibility, Empathy, and Self-Control were used in all interactions whether positive or negative to drive home our expectations.  The dress code and rules are given to students through modeling sessions so that 100% of our students understand them.  

How should our teachers interact? What should they believe about our students?

For teachers, this is modeled through the way administration interacts with them.  Expectations like greeting each other every day and speaking to each other in the hallway in from of students sets an atmosphere of care that students will pick up on and model as well.  Administrators must explicitly say that all teachers must believe the impossible for our students or they will not have an opportunity to teach them.  We cannot move forward as an organization if there are people in the organization that put limits on our students.

Who are our parents and why are they an integral part of what our schools are?

For parents, this is established on the first interaction they have coming into our school.  All parents are welcomed warmly and given time to discuss the progress of their student.  Parents are given an expectation to volunteer within our school and rewarded when they hit certain milestones.  When major issues arise, parents that play a role in the school are notified so that the message out to community is one that doesn't get out of control.

These are questions we must answer in order for us to build the type of culture that creates earth-shattering results. We must plan for these ideas before we enter the school year so that everyone is on the same page on DAY 1.


First Class - The World is your Oyster


By Victoria Gaines - 

bacon enthusiast. queen of anxiety. rabid lover.

2018 is here! So where is your next trip? What countries have you visited? The world is your oyster -- as cliche as it sounds, it's very true. As a young girl growing up in a rural town I was always curious about the world and loved any type of road trip. I would hop in the truck with my dad or grandpa whenever I saw them grab their keys. After graduating from college, I took my first flight ever to Miami, then a couple years later I finally got my passport and I’ve been exploring the world ever since. I’ve learned so much from traveling. In each place, the incredible people, the rich history and culture, and the delicious food (can’t forget about the food) have all shaped my views of the world in some way. Below are just a few key things I’ve learned along the way from my traveling experiences.

It doesn’t hurt to learn a new language.

I took three years of Spanish in high school but I still only remember basic words and phrases. I wish I would have taken a class or two in college to become fluent. It amazes me how a lot of people in other countries are fluent in at least two languages. There’s also a chance English will be one of them. There are places where you may not have to open your Google Translate app at all, but then there may be places where you will be at a complete lost. While in Cuba I had a scary experience when trying to locate my friend in the airport. We were departing from different cities so we planned to meet at the airport at the currency exchange once we arrived. After a couple of hours of waiting I tried to ask around for help. It was difficult communicating since I knew very little Spanish. With no internet or phone service I was on the verge of freaking out because I had no idea where she was. But luckily I had a very nice cab driver who didn’t mind waiting and also helped me walk around both terminals until he found a woman that also looked like she might be lost. I know we are taught not to speak to strangers, but I’m so grateful he was there to help. Being able to communicate and connect with people in their own language can be such a heartwarming experience. So I encourage you to learn a little more about the language of the country you’re visiting instead of always depending on technology. Be open to meeting new people and engaging with the locals. You can also locate educational tours that will immerse you into the language and local culture. Are you up for the challenge?

Discover new foods

So don’t be one of those picky eaters when you’re in a new country. Try something new! Discovering new foods is such an amazing experience and you may even discover something you’ve eaten several times before with a totally new flavor. I’m a huge foodie so I’m always down to try the local cuisine. The most exotic food I’ve tried so far was a camel burger in Dubai. It was actually pretty tasty, but I did feel a tad bit guilty about eating camel meat.  

Another great experience to try is a cooking class. While in Cuba this past summer I learned about the different spices and herbs that goes into cooking an authentic Cuban meal. We also made a special mojito with honey and dark rum. We cooked so much food that we couldn’t eat it all. It was such a fun culinary experience to get a hands on demonstration with the cooking staff. I can’t wait to shake up a few special mojitos of my own for my dinner guests.

Take the scenic route.

Road trips can be fun if you have your essentials: good company and good music. It’s been a few years since I’ve driven anywhere further than 3 hours away, but I don’t mind long trips every now and then. It gives me time to think and to sing my heart out. I also like stopping in random cities. I took a road trip once from Texas to Nevada and I explored so many historical landmarks along the way such as the Hoover Dam, the Grand Canyon, and the historic Route 66. By the time I reached Vegas I was too tired to party and gamble! But it was worth it. I’m sure I’ll make my way back to Vegas, but this time I’m definitely flying.

Design the life you want

Struggling to find the balance between adulting and living the life you want? I know it can be draining, but it’s possible. I view traveling as a form of self-care so I do my best to incorporate travel plans into my schedule. Even if it’s just a long weekend trip, I have to get away. I bought a plane ticket to Athens, Greece nine months in advance; so yes, I’m a little obsessed with planning. But there have been times where I’ve bought a flight deal spontaneously because I just couldn’t pass on such a cheap deal. Travel doesn’t always have to be planned. Just pack your bags and go. I’ve had friends that have taken the leap of faith and quit their jobs to travel or relocated to another country to work, teach, and live. So whether you work a typical 9 to 5 or freelancing, it’s never too late to design the life you want. I’m sending good vibes your way as you plan your next adventure!

Diversity in 21st Century Public Education: Facing School Inequities

By Sophia James

With over 10 years’ experience of public service at the state and local level, Sophia James has helped guide significant initiatives and policies that address the coordination and efficiency of education and health services for children and families. Sophia presently serves as an Early Childhood Instructional Associate at the Archdiocese of New York, assisting in the implementation of curriculum, assessments, and professional development, and strengthening of school partnerships across 70-plus parochial schools. She is the founder of Education: Unplugged, a web platform for innovative programs and dialogue in education, as well as an open resource on education initiatives for young children. Sophia currently sits on the executive board of Phi Delta Kappa (NYU Chapter), an international organization for educators, and as former Chair of New York’s Young & Powerful Group, she received a citation for exemplary service to the community and state by Brooklyn Borough President Eric Adams (former New York State Senator). She is a member of the Haitian Roundtable (HRT), a professional organization committed to civic engagement as well as philanthropic endeavors benefiting Haiti, and is also an appointed member of Community Board 8 in Manhattan, serving as Co-Chair of the Technology Committee. Sophia has also trained at the Women’s Campaign School at Yale University, a leadership program that seeks to increase the number and influence of women in elected and appointed office in the United States and around the globe. Sophia holds a Master of Science in Educational Psychology from the School of Education, State University at Albany.


Why has it become almost the norm to find public schools across the country with students isolated by race and income? In a modern-day tale of two cities, in virtually every major city in the U.S.,  students of color are more likely than whites to attend public schools shaped by high concentrations of poverty (per an analysis of federal data). The cities experiencing the highest levels of both racial and economic segregation in schools include New Orleans and Dallas in the south, Los Angeles in the west, Chicago in the Midwest, and Philadelphia and New York City on the east coast. 

As we lament this problem across news outlets, the debate continues to increase over how to integrate schools. In June 6, 2017, the New York City Department of Education released a plan to stimulate diversity in its schools. The plan, titled Equity and Excellence for All: Diversity in New York City Public Schools, presented three focal goals: (1) to increase racial representativeness in public schools; (2) to decrease economic stratification of public schools; and (3) to increase the number of NYC DOE schools that are inclusive on the bases of language, heritage, ability status, and housing status. A report from the Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools at New York University (NYU), “Separate and Unequal” suggests there is modest benefit for vulnerable students attending the most diverse schools when comparing ELA and math test scores and four-year high school graduation rates. The report’s key findings highlight that students attending the most diverse high schools were slightly more likely to graduate on-time than their peers attending the least diverse schools; less economically advantaged students in particular seemed to benefit from attending the most diverse high schools. Diversity along lines of race and socioeconomic status seemed to slightly affect achievement gaps (ie, opportunity gaps), while hyper-segregation seemed to greatly exacerbate them (ie, opportunity barrier).

Research already confirms wide-ranging benefits for students in racially and socioeconomically integrated schools, including stronger test scores, increased college attendance, and improved critical-thinking skills. “If you successfully bring these resources to high-poverty schools, it is possible to produce strong results for kids—and we know examples of excellent high-poverty schools that are doing that,” according to Halley Potter, a fellow at Century Foundation. The most common method listed by school districts to achieve integration is the redrawing of neighborhood school boundaries, seen as a controversial approach. Much of the pushback, like school segregation, cuts along racial and class lines. One illustration of the inherent challenges is seen in the neighborhoods of the Upper West Side and Brooklyn, where parents oppose school boundary changes that would bring racial and socioeconomic integration.


Experts say high levels of concentrated poverty in schools are symptomatic of broader issues with segregation, housing, and transportation. For that reason, it would take a joint effort among school and government officials to tackle poverty and create more opportunity in several policy areas. “We're talking about housing patterns, transportation patterns, commercial development. There's lots of stuff that ultimately influences where people choose to or can live,” said Kent McGuire, the president of the Southern Education Foundation, and the former assistant secretary of the Department of Education during the Clinton Administration. 

The issue [of diversity] deserves greater emphasis and attention with students of color now a majority of the public school population and whites gentrifying urban neighborhoods of color, says Amy Stuart Wells, a professor of sociology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Studies show racially integrated schools can improve education for students of all races and accomplish one immeasurable advantage: helping youth challenge stereotypes and their implicit biases toward people of different races and ethnicities. But fully realizing this goal requires teachers who are trained in facilitating courageous conversations about race, said Wells, and skilled in racially and culturally relevant teaching practices. If education leaders want to confront and undo severe racial inequities in schools and school systems, they must create opportunities for teachers and staff to engage in productive discussions about questions that many of them will consider uncomfortable.  Given how complex and how deeply felt Americans’ beliefs about race and equity are, racially sensitive topics cannot be addressed effectively through one-time workshops. If the intention is to disrupt the status quo, school leaders should have a plan and skills to shift the momentum and energy toward learning. To do this work effectively, school and district leaders need to study, honor, and understand the complexities of both individual experiences and the long-standing history, biases, and deep-seated effect of inequities in American education.


Per NYU’s report, the condition of hyper-segregation influences student outcomes, limiting access to opportunity for the most vulnerable students. The real work of educational equity must involve expanding opportunity because the opposite of segregation is not integration; the opposite of segregation is access. Segregated schools limit access to opportunities for less economically advantaged students and students of color. To achieve equity, we must address a very frank question—a question that deals with not only how to expand diversity, but importantly how to expand opportunity. 

Several recommendations to tackle school inequities include:

  • Learning in integrated settings can enhance students’ leadership skills.
  • Integrating schools leads to more equitable access to important resources such as structural facilities, highly qualified teachers, challenging courses, private and public funding, and social and cultural capital.
  • Coordinate strategies to encourage diversity. Cities must enlist allies from multiple community agencies to coordinate strategies to promote diversity while simultaneously discouraging segregation.  
  • Reframe education. The reframing of education must imagine diversity as something beyond bodies, and proliferates the properties of knowing and being inclusive of diverse student backgrounds.
  • Recruit and retain highly effective teachers of color. A plan to desegregate NYC schools must be imagined alongside a plan to promote diversity among the NYC teacher workforce. This includes the hiring of culturally competent educators mixed with a continued effort to provide ongoing development and assessment of teacher cultural competency, using cultural competence measures, inventories, scales, and other data systems.  


Feb 2016. School Integration Is Making a Comeback as Research Documents Its Benefits. Teachers College, Columbia University

Anderson, Melinda D. (Feb 2016). The Promise of Integrated Schools. The Atlantic

Boschima, Jane (Mar 2016). Separate and Still Unequal. The Atlantic

Kirkland, David & Sanzone, Joy (Oct 2017). Separate and Unequal: A Comparison of Student Outcomes in New York City’s Most and Least Diverse Schools. The Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools at NYU Steinhardt.

Ngounou, Gislaine & Gutierrez, Nancy (Nov 2017). Learning to lead for racial equity. Phi Delta Kappan 99 (3), 37-41.

Potter, Halley, Quick, Kimberly & Davies, Elizabeth (Feb 2016). A New Wave of School Integration. The Century Foundation

Veiga, Christina (Dec 2017). ‘Be bold’: Advocates, lawmakers call on New York City to go further on school integration. Chalkbeat

Wells Stuart, Amy, Fox, Lauren & Cordova-Cobo, Diana (Feb 2016). How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students. The Century Foundation

Positive School Culture

By Dr. Karen Johnson


Dr. Johnson is a Jackson, Mississippi resident, high school teacher, book lover and fan of all things Dr. Who.  She has worked in education for twenty years, we applaud her dedication!

Many business principles are built on making sure their customers have a positive experience. Customer service training, a pleasant atmosphere, and a quality product all play a role in how customers perceive their experience in a business. In education, however, this model is sometimes lacking. What so many people fail to realize is that a positive school culture goes a long way in affecting the achievement of the school.

As a 20-year veteran, I have worked in three different high schools and believe me, school culture matters! It affects the morale of the employees, the motivation of the students and even the perceptions the parents and community have of the school as a whole. In my negative experience, it became a chore to report to work. It's hard to be motivational for students when you feel that administration is blaming you for all the ills of the school and provide no support. As a result, teachers are barely engaged with the school itself, instead they just come to work and leaving at the end of the day.

The students are very perceptive and it shows in their behavior and achievement. We had conversations about the feeling that the people in charge have given up on them or why some teachers don't make an effort to teach them. They even noticed how some teachers seem to be disregarded by administration and it made them angry because these were the teachers they felt was trying to help them. It was very disheartening to hear the negative thoughts perpetuated by the parents and the local media, who don’t realize these thoughts are taken to heart by the students.

Without a top down change, the atmosphere of the school is only going to get more oppressive.  Part of the issue stems from the viewpoint of the school leaders.  Many leaders, especially in urban schools, tend to view students as “problems”, not people and base their approach on stemming the “bad behavior” and removing the “bad kids” from the environment.   It also oppresses the teachers who are trying to make a difference in students’ lives

With my positive school culture experience, it was like a breath of fresh air. The feeling of being valued as a professional and as a subject matter expert was exciting. It makes you want to do more because you want to bring your very best to your classroom and your school.  Administration plays a huge role in this culture because they respect their teachers and treat them as change agents, not competition.

The students also buy into the positive culture.  They grow because their voices are being heard and valued.  They thrive off the positive reinforcement for behavior or academic achievements.  They strive to bring community pride and recognition to the school because it makes them feel good.  It also makes them feel as they are a part of the school community.  This “feel good” attitude is reflected in test scores, academic achievements, and school pride. 

Both staff and students also feed off the feelings of higher morale.  There are positive relationships between the students and the teachers.  Are there never behavior problems?  Of course, there are, but there are also fewer referred discipline issues because teachers are often able to handle more of them on their own because of the relationships that have been built between the teachers and the students. 

Positive school culture is always a work in progress.  Administrators do not change overnight and neither do teachers.  For those who have been in education for a while, the biggest change comes from forgetting what you were taught regarding student discipline and being willing to incorporate new ideas and methods.  While there are many programs out there designed to promote positive school culture, most administrators will come to realize there is no one approach that will work.  Methods have to be cultivated to fit the needs of the students. 

It is also important to involve parents in the process.  Involving parents in implementation of the positive school culture benefits the school and the students.  Parents can help their child take ownership in the school community as well as assist in fostering community pride in the school.  It also helps reduce discipline issues because parents are aware of the school expectations and many parents will ensure their child is in line with those expectations. 

Positive school culture ensures that academic achievement has a place to grow.  A positive school culture allows the focus to be on developing scholars instead of constantly deriving ways to enforce discipline.  As academic achievement increases, discipline issues decreases and growth continues.  In turn, it develops a school where teachers and students thrive and the community supports it.  It becomes a win/win for all involved.


NCLB, fan or not- it was groundbreaking legislation.

by Victoria Robinson

Victoria Robinson, Brooklyn native,  is an educator passionate about having real life connections in her classroom. She focuses on teaching her students about self love, forgiveness, and the rewards of hard work. She has managed to combine her academic inspirations with her love of reading and loving her only daughter. 


Teacher education programs and certification routes vary from college to college to state to state without a unified system to determine teacher quality and effectiveness. The need for policy that sets the standard for teacher certification and accountability can possibly lead to a regulatory system that benefits all stakeholders. Determining why teacher education programs and certification routes have not been under the microscope per researcher Wilson (1995) is because for years teaching was not viewed or valued as a profession and was used as a placeholder as many decided on other careers. The impact of this resulted in classrooms and schools having revolving doors of educators and lack of consistency and commitment. Wilson (1995) also identifies that retention was a challenge and the stigma, low pay, and difficulties associated with teaching caused many to completely avoid it as a profession. These issues impacted how schools and students performed academically and lead to the passing of No Child Left Behind in 2002, which in 2015 was replaced with Every Student Succeeds Act. Although NCLB has been replaced its accountability directive directly connects to my problem of practice which aims to determine if teacher education programs impact teacher quality/accountability- which in turn impacts student performance.

What is the relationship between teacher accountability and student academic performance, the initial steps of teacher accountability begins with the completed teacher education program and certification process. Once the teacher enters the classroom communities want to be sure that the most qualified teacher has entered the room to teach their children. When NCLB was passed, the act included stipulations on teacher accountability in public schools. This was met with resistance and controversy however it set a standard and responsibility on the classroom teachers effectiveness which was contingently based on the students’ performance. NCLB attempted to set standards for teachers during the certification process and afterwards with required testing to demonstrate mastery of their content requiring that teachers earn a graduate degree to become educators. It was a controversial policy that was supported and challenged, and even with the high level of resistance, partially due to the teacher and school accountability parts of the bill, as well as withholding federal funds to schools who did not comply, many viewed it as targeting teachers with the blame. NCLB did however set standards and routines in place that later resulted in an improvement in reading and math scores nationally as reported in 2005 by The National Assessment of Educational Progress.  As my research continues, it will be interesting to compare the outcomes of NCLB compared to ESSA seeing that only NCLB addressed teacher accountability and effectiveness.

In 2001 President Bush proposed The No Child Left Behind Act out of concern of underperforming schools, academic progress disparity between white and black children, as well as concern that the American education system was not on par with other international education systems. The stipulations under the law were deemed as required, as there were mandates that schools must meet or additional action would be taken. The passing of the bill took less than a year, being introduced in March 2001, passing in the House of Representatives in May 2001, passing in the Senate in June 2001, agreed to by the House in December 2001, and signed by President George W. Bush in January 2002. The timeline of this legislation encountered numerous steps, after President’s Bush’s introduction to the House, the bill was referred to the House Committee on Education and the Workforce and review hearings were held. This initial stage included bill markup sessions with modifications and feedback provided to amend the bill. Once amendments were voted on, the bill continued to the next process of additional review by a rules committee. Weeks of debates occurred and when the amendments were ready for voting, the voting process was stalled when the House was unable to acquire quorum. Additionally, the process was stalled months later when the Senate insisted that another committee be created to review the suggested amendments made during the previous months.

During these months of drafting, making revisions, and debating on NCLB educators across the country were vocal on the policy, in favor and against. However, as an educator during that time, I could connect to the reason the policy was drafted based on the needs I witnessed in the public schools I taught in. It was obvious during those years that NCLB’s implementation stemmed from two main areas that appeared to be plaguing public schools, teacher hiring practices and defining teacher quality.


Teacher hiring practices

Over the last decade, earning a college degree has become more accessible and compact and available in numerous formats from traditional in person lecture format to online degree programs, as well as compact fellowships with trainings and workshops. The profession of education has experienced these changes with the inception of alternative teacher education programs including inner city based teaching fellowships and national organizations like Teach for America founded in 1989. The increase of these alternative routes of becoming an educator in addition to the traditional teacher education programs that include four year degrees earned with completion of 130+ credits has led to a discussion on the quality of teacher that each option provides and the modified preparation of teachers in America.

Hiring shifts are most evident, according to Feng (2015) in charter schools as there has been an increase since school year 2005-2006 in the hiring of TFA corps members in charter schools. In New York City alone in 2005 there were 488 crop members hired at 17 charter schools compared to data from 2000 where only 160 were hired from TFA and more than 300 were hired with traditional teacher certifications. Researcher Goldhaber (2015) shared findings that were even more concerning around teacher hiring. His research revealed that schools in urban areas that struggle with recruitment often turn to Teach for America for staffing needs and this can lead to one school district hiring a high number of teachers who are not equipped with the skill need in that school. The likelihood of hiring these teachers with limited training and experience and placing them in high need classes and subjects will have a long-term effect on the students and the community. Cranston (2012) surveyed and interviewed school leaders on what they look for in hires and investigated how teacher quality manifested into poor academic student performance.


Defining Teacher Quality

Defining teacher quality allows aspects of research to discuss possible influencers on student performance.  No Child Left Behind, implemented in 2002, plays a significant role in defining teacher quality. When No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed with the goal of closing achievement gaps, standards were set that included teacher quality requirements. Congress included that teachers who were certified alternatively and teachers who completed four-year preparation programs are both considered highly qualified (Hanna, 2011). No Child Left behind mandated that all K-12 teachers be “highly qualified” by 2006 and numerous quantitative analyses have resulted in the findings that teacher quality is among the most important school related factors affecting student academic achievement (Hanna, 2011).

NCLB was a ground breaking piece of legislation that aimed at returning the power and responsibility to schools, holding schools accountable, setting high stands for all stakeholders, and setting goals to improve the quality of education. Although NCLB was not completely successful, the policy did attempt to remedy an issue. Now that NCLB is defunct and ESSA has more inclusive and encouraging directives, perhaps the connection between teacher quality and student progress will become clearly defined.





























Cranston, J. (2012). Exploring School Principals Hiring Decisions: Fitting in and Getting Hired.


University of Manitoba. 2012.



Feng, L. (2015). Financial Incentives to Promote Teacher Recruitment and Retention: An


Analysis of the Florida Critical Teacher Shortage Problem. SREE Spring 2015




Goldhaber, D. (2015). Teacher Effectiveness Research and the Evolution of the U.S Teacher


Policy. The Bush Institute at the George W. Bush Presidential Center.


Hanna, P., Gimbert, B. (2011). Falling Flat: Certification as an Insufficient Indicator of


Teacher Quality. JNAAC, Vol 6, Number 2, Fall 2011.




National Council on Teacher Quality. Building Teacher Quality in Baltimore City


Public Schools.




Wilson, D. (1995). Learning from Experience: History and Teacher Education. American


Educational Research Association.




Education Reform in a Mann’s World


by Tanesha Dixon

Tanesha is a native New Yorker living and learning in Richmond, VA. She serves as an Assistant Director of Student Affairs for a private university where she saves undergrads from the fun college mistakes we all made. Tanesha is also an education activist, free thinker & fan of all things Octavia Butler. 
Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American educational reformer and Whig politician dedicated to promoting public education. He served in the Massachusetts State legislature (1827–1837). Educational historians credit Horace Mann as father of the Common School Movement.

Fighting for educational equality means we are willing and able to dissect and examine its structure on a continuum. Improving college readiness means understanding disparities in early childhood literacy. Criticism of post-college preparedness requires educators to be critical of the pipelines our students navigate at every academic, economic, and political crossroad. If activism serves to promote reform along these measures with hope to improve society, then in my concern for educational accessibility across race, class, gender, and many other identities, the concept of education as “a great equalizer of the conditions of men” is at best, a presumptuous ideal and at worst, extremely cliché.

I am familiar with this overused quote from Horace Mann, and ashamed as an educator to know very little about his place in American history and education. I do some quick research of the northern politician-abolitionist-education reformer, looking for untapped context around Mann’s overused edict. Education as a public good? Agree. Treat education as a respected profession and equip the field with trained, qualified teachers? No argument there. Schools as venues to build character and a training ground for workforce development? Between my understanding and criticism of the history of urban education according to Tyack and my place in higher education, often tasked with preparing young adults to think, communicate, and lead in business and industry, I can get behind that.

Let’s come back to this “conditions of men” part, Horace. Picture it: America, 1848. The “conditions” of our nation were not our among our men’s shining moments. Mann was not looking past the conditions of less fortunate white men–farmers, factory workers, the occasional adolescent derelict but otherwise, your good Christians to reform education. His education activism was to serve “men”—100% (white, cisgender) men, not those three-fifths not-quite-human men and certainly not the likes of my black womanhood. As he stated in his report to the Massachusetts State Board of Education, “some men are to toil and earn, others to seize and enjoy… but all should have an equal chance for earning.” Come on, Mann. #notallmen, I guess.

I also am trying to understand the conditions in which men across economic disparities would become equal at the hands of well-trained, likely well-off, teenage women. This is during a time—1848, 2017, whatever—where women were not trusted with much of anything. Voting? Defending our country’s freedoms? Vying to be the leader of the free world? Nope, no can do. Paying and training women to equalize the conditions of men and society? An idea that just might work. According to Horace’s reform, it’s a Mann’s world, but it would be nothing without a woman or a girl…because who else is going to teach these white children? I wonder who was equalizing the conditions among the women of color who were educating their villages, building their children’s character, preparing them for the farce of their perpetual servitude workforce in 1848? Spoiler: it wasn’t Mann.

I’m telling you what you already know, or have considered in your educator subconscious. Education is in shambles and we reformers—teachers, educators, counselors, activists, and politicians—make daily attempts to answer the million-dollar question. A steal, really, when your Secretary of Education DeVos proposes to reduce Department funding by $9 billion, but still wants you to rest assured knowing that she and the Administration will “ensure every student has an equal opportunity to receive a great education,” even the “educational needs of the nation's most vulnerable students, including poor and minority students and students with disabilities.”

Educators, who comes to mind when you think of education reform and activism? I think of people like Septima Clark, Ruby Bridges, and Ms. Rosa, the woman who would sneak the hot chocolate machine from her overnight job at BP for the school holiday party. I’m not saying Horace Mann was trash or anything but if he’s considered the father of American public education, shouldn’t I know his name and legacy? Why isn’t his work in my historical toolbox as an educator?


TRUST is the magic friend of Uncertainty


By Jessica Leigh-Lyons

Jessica Leigh Lyons is a coach, a facilitator, and a writer who helps people create an Internal Compass that guides them on their life path so that they can navigate big life decisions with confidence and clarity. You can find more on

There you are, kayaking down the river of life. Let’s call her Uncertainty. Maybe you know EXACTLY where you’re going. Maybe you have no freaking clue, and the fog is so thick, you’ve stopped paddling while you wait it out. You feel calm, but alert, paying attention to any clues that might speak to your next “right” step.Suddenly, a huge ugly toad tries to crawl up onto your kayak. Doubt has made his entrance. Doubt starts whispering to you that you have no idea where you are, that you’ve not grown enough, that you’re not worthy of the next step and don’t have the right qualifications.

Recognizing the difference between uncertainty and doubt is critical in tackling our dreams, big projects, and authentic connection. As Doubt crawls up, you panic. Your throat gets tight and fear drops like a stone in your belly. In your fear, you take your paddle and ferociously beat on the Doubt toad.

GET OUTTA MY BOAT, you scream.

Or MAYBE, you get lethargic and can’t think or move. You feel like a failure. Doubt is so heavy that your boat gets stuck in the muck of the river. A client recently told me she loves the adventure of life, the uncertainty, but doubt cripples her. Every. Time. This nuance is critical. If you want to get out from under doubt and back to the the adventure, there are some tried and true steps to get your kayak moving again.

1. Get intimate with Doubt and Uncertainty. If you don’t know what it feels like in your body, you’re more likely to be afraid of it. A meditation teacher recently asked, “What is being known?” As Doubt creeps in, what happens?

When I feel doubt, I get nervous. I bite my nails. I find myself scanning Facebook to *see* but not engage. There’s a list that builds in the back of my mind, but I don’t take action. I get fearful of all of the rejection that’s headed my way. I start listing my failures. So much Doubt.

2. Name it. First, you needed to reflect on what it feels like to experience doubt. You can’t name it if you don’t know what it feels like. This is a step in building your emotional diversity. Just like biodiversity keeps a healthy biome, studies like this one show you need to practice knowing the nuances of your emotions.

3. De-permanent it. In Sheryl Sandberg’s book Option B, she points to the power of feeling like a condition you’re experiencing is permanent: recognizing that we’re not at fault. Instead of using language like I AM doubtful, use language like I’m experiencing doubt or I’m feeling doubt. This subtle but significant language difference helps our brains make an important switch. When we say I am doubt, I am fearful, etc, we make ourselves think that’s what we ARE that emotion. We are not. Experiencing our emotions allows us to see that it will pass, realizing it will not last forever.

4. Try reframing it. Often, when we name emotions like Doubt, we take the heaviness out of the equation. We can now paddle our kayaks, even with Doubt squatting in the back. It’s less heavy. We see our Doubt for what it is, but we don’t let it stop us. “I’m nervous as heck for this job interview, and I can see that Doubt is creeping in.” Choosing Uncertainty has an element of trust and curiosity that Doubt does not.

5. Stretch your Trust muscles. One of my favorite hands-on exercises is to get to an improv class. The entire process is uncertain. You have no idea what your teammates will say next and you have to roll with it. Make a dinner without following a recipe. Schedule an outing with a friend withOUT a plan. Follow your instincts for an afternoon. Build more Uncertainty into your life AND WATCH how you build your Trust muscles.

One thing I’m certain of: the more we know our own distinctions between Doubt and Uncertainty, the more we build connections and communities where Uncertainty is celebrated and supported in deep, humbling trust.  I’d love to know where you’re noticing your Doubt. Where are you embracing Uncertainty?  

To the next riverbend you’re navigating,


How to Make Navigating Uncertainty Fun


By Jessica Leigh Lyons

Jessica Leigh Lyons is a coach, a facilitator, and a writer who helps people create an Internal Compass that guides them on their life path so that they can navigate big life decisions with confidence and clarity. You can find more on

As an elementary school teacher, my days consisted of lesson plans, laughter, and inquisitive questions by ten year olds. But when I hit burnout, I decided to make a change.  I woke up to find myself in a cubicle with coffee, my computer, by myself with my thoughts. At first, I was overjoyed by the silence. That didn’t last long. As time wore on,I felt a twisting sensation of anxiety and a dull panic that never left accompanied by an ever-whispering question: What do you want?

Truth be told, I had no idea.

I started calling it the fog of uncertainty and I began searching for how we navigate through unknown times. Sometimes uncertainty arises from external events like a storm.  Our partner gets a job in a new city and we move or we suffer a devastating loss of a loved one and it rearranges our world. Other times, uncertainty is like the current in the ocean. It’s internal and below the surface. We have a thought, a doubt, or a fear creep across our mind and suddenly, we feel unsure about how to proceed.

When life feels uncertain and we can’t see around the corner, many of us have a habit of getting anxious. This is normal, because ur brains are designed to be mindless. For example, you don’t have to think about when to take your next breath while you’re reading this, your brain naturally does so. If we had to think through everything that our bodies needed to function, we’d never get to put our passion into the world. However, when our brain happens across a circumstance that it doesn’t have previous data for, it panics. When we feel like we are drowning in “what if” or “what might have been”, we go back to play with “what is possible”. Choose an innocuous statement and then try three different types of responses. Let your brain shut it down and notice how you stop yourself when you’re feeling uncertain.

1. Try on your “NO”

I’m writing a blog for Ringlet Market. No, I can’t write my blog for ringlet market because I have too many deadlines on my plate right now. No, I can’t write my blog for ringlet market because I’m having writer’s block.

2. Then try “Yes, but…” I’m going for a run today. Yes, I’d like to run today, but I don’t have enough time in the schedule. because I don’t have enough time. Yes, I’d like to run today, but I don’t have any workout clothes clean. Etc.

3. Use YES, AND!

I’m writing a blog for Ringlet Market. I’m writing a blog for Ringlet Market AND I’m going to include an improv game. Yes, I’m writing a blog for Ringlet Market and I’m going to include an improv game AND I’m super excited to talk about navigating uncertainty. Yes, I’m super excited to be talking about navigating uncertainty AND to tell people that it’s NORMAL so we learn to PLAY instead of get anxious.

You can use different statements or play with the same statement. The trick here is to allow your brain to play with possibilities so that you can learn to navigate uncertainty with ease.

What Brings You Here?

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By Tenesha L. Johnson, MA.Ed

Tenesha L. Johnson was born and raised in Queens and Long Island, NY, where she lives with a true passion to educate children and young adults. Her professional background has led her to dedicate more than 14 years to higher education in a variety of leadership and advocacy roles at colleges and universities throughout the tri-state area. Tenesha currently serves as a counselor and lecturer for the Percy Ellis Sutton SEEK Program at CUNY York College. Prior to joining CUNY, she served as the Assistant Director of Residence Life for Judicial Affairs at Saint Peter’s University and Health Professions counselor at Bergen Community College in Paramus, NJ. She’s also served as an adjunct lecturer at four-year and community colleges throughout New York and New Jersey.
For the past several years she has served in a leadership capacity with anti-bullying campaigns, The Girl Scouts of America, current and former board member of Blossom Sisters Dance and Performing Arts Center, as well as B.A.S.I.C.S International. Tenesha is an active member of the Long Island Beta Psi Sigma Chapter of Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority Inc. In 2013, she founded an organization called The Dancing Nerve, a dance arts program for children and adults living with a disability. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Black Studies and Business Administration, as well as two graduate degrees in Educational Leadership and Supervision, and School Counseling. She is currently pursuing an advanced certificate in Disability Studies from the CUNY School of Professional Studies.

As the new school year approaches, educators from across the nation will ask a classroom of student’s one of the more important questions they’ll be probed to answer in their lifetime.

 ~ What Do You Want To Be When You Grow Up? ~

Many students will respond with one of the familiar prestigious career choices. I’ll be a doctor, lawyer, teacher, engineer or maybe a nurse. While naming their professional goals is sure to spark a lively and full conversation, I wonder if we, as educators often overlook the importance of helping our students dig deeper into the motivation(s) of their pursuit. Have we been honest about all that it takes to reach that goal? More importantly, have we forgone the candid conversation about how a student’s drive for success has the ability to impact their long term achievement?

An early conversation during my Freshman Seminar courses at CUNY York College has always been, tell me what brings you here? New collegiate scholars, you could’ve been anywhere else in the world today, but you’re here with me. Why? You’re making a commitment for the next four years, only to have your name printed on nice paper and placed in an expensive wooden frame? Let’s not forget the possibility of the enormous debt that may follow you for the next few decades. Are you sure about this? What will make you different from the college student 2000 miles from home who graduated with a “nice paper” in their hand as well?

The most common responses I hear are, a) I’d like to make enough money take care of my family b) this is a family tradition c) I’m not sure why I’m here, in fact I’d rather be working instead.

These are all honest and transparent responses for new students in transition. Now, now where do we go from here?

The truth is, this generation has been charged with the task of navigating a fast changing world of economic and social uncertainty we’ve not seen in many decades. The road to success is quite congested with students and their families that all want the same thing that you want. SUCCESS!

If our students’ motivation before they arrived at the final destination is led solely by material gain, what will happen when their dreams aren’t realized as planned? How do we help prepare our graduates for the day after graduation?

I believe that a motivation led by the student in the driver’s seat, is what has the potential to set an employee apart from other candidates in a large competitive work force. Academic preparedness and the strengthening of hard and soft skills; including purposeful networking and professional relationship building can be part of what offers the foundation for resilience when the internship/job interview falls through. A clear motivation is what will help our students “Bounce Back” and persist in the face of disappointment.

While the diploma/degree provides evidence of their commitment to the completion of a task, it doesn’t always indicate all that they’re capable of when plans veer off the straight dotted line.

It’s our hope that each educator will be intentional in sowing seeds of confident, capable and spirited energy into their students, as they pursue their individual success and accomplishment.

Education is Activism- Part Two

By Shannon McFadden


            I did not expect to write this soon, but the events that took place in Charlottesville, VA got my Twitter fingers moving. Charlottesville, VA 2017, is reminiscent of Charlottesville, VA 1997, 1977, 1957, 1937, 1917, and 1897. The astonishing thing to me, is the fact that we, as card-carrying Americans, are surprised that this can be going on in America. Now. How could this demonstration of hatred and bigotry happen now? The answer is quite elementary, my dear: education.

            When I was a student in elementary school, we learned about American History, from the perspective of good, God-fearing Christians. Those who believed in the creed that all men were created equal, and that Jesus is the perfect example of humanity. Fast forward to middle school. American history, and the watered down version of the Trail of Tears, the Slave Experience, and the glowing reviews of the Forefathers. The Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution were discussed at length, yet, the stories of the oppressed were glossed over. There is a saying: history is told from the side of the winner. In the American education system, we are not the authors of our stories. There are no Native American history books, discussing the brutal murder of an entire people, all in the name of Her Majesty the Queen. No Japanese American history books, discussing the Holocaust-type conditions of America, circa 1940s. There is nothing discussing how Pacific Islanders were treated in the same fashion of Native Americans, where their homes made the “perfect” military base. Not to mention the lack of information on the Mexican inhabitants of Texas. Our students only learn history, from the aspect of white supremacy, which creates a sense of false superiority and false inferiority.

            In urban centers, there are so many opportunities to learn history, from different viewpoints. We live in areas where knowledge is overflowing. Everyone has a computer in their hands, where researching a topic can happen in minutes. We are afforded the opportunity to meet people from various walks of life, where traditions are held close, but evolution is welcome. This is not true for many Americans. They reside in Charlottesville, VA. In Calvert County, MD. In Shacklefords, VA. Where the only exposure one has to history, is through the public school system, the private school system, and homeschool. With this being the case, it is impossible to understand differing viewpoints, as only one point is taught. History books are written by publishers, who want to promote the idea of one America, and know the only way to instill this ideology, is through education.

            What are teachers to do? Well, first, we need to refute the lie. There are several different versions of the genocide of Native Americans and the enslavement of Africans and the oppression of the Irish. Aspects of American history, which are deemed as “ugly”, have been given less and less space in American history. How many of you actually learned about the concentration camps, full of Japanese Americans, in America? With little time spent on learning history, each generation is unable to fully connect and relate to each other. This is how Charlottesville, VA occurs. There are so many children, yearning to learn the truth, to understand why their parents are so adamant about preserving a “rich” history. We are seeing nothing new. We are seeing the product of propaganda that is being taught to our children, through a free and appropriate public education.   As teachers, we need to combat the notion that the book is right. The book is not right. We need to use our teacher unions to fight for a fairer version of history. We need to pull together our resources, and promote the telling of stories from the side of the oppressed, the loser.

            Howard Zinn wrote A People’s History of the United States, which discusses the founding of the American educational system. It discusses how education was created to maintain the social status of the upper class. As more poor whites fought for respect, the school system began to evolve. As teachers, I charge you to read this book. This is how we understand our role. We are liberators. How can we liberate, if we settle for modified history, where liberation is not at the forefront. We are disgusted by the acts of bigotry, yet we allow the stories of the oppressed to go untold. We are the tellers of these stories. Teach your students about the Crusades, and create lessons connecting the Crusades to World War 1 and 2. Explain to them the role America played in combating Nazism, while there are Americans who follow that ideology. This is not about Black and white. This is about teachers stepping up, and declaring that we will not continue to enslave the minds of our youth. We are here to expand their thoughts, their outlook on life, and to give a voice to the voiceless. Activism begins in the classroom. Activism begins with us.

Education is Activism

By Shannon McFadden

Shannon McFadden is a former educator, CEO of a small tutoring company, and Director of Quality Assurance for a non-profit organization. With a true passion for children, Ms. McFadden has spent most of her life, advocating for those who cannot fight for themselves. Born and raised in Baltimore County, Ms. McFadden received her undergraduate education at Spelman College, completed graduate courses at Howard University, and is currently attending Walden University. At Walden, Ms. McFadden is working on her Masters in Forensic Psychology, concentrating on juvenile delinquency prevention and intervention programming. With a hunger to invest in our children, Ms. McFadden plans to open a multi-generational intervention program, targeting at-risk youth and their parents, providing comprehensive services to meet all needs. Ms. McFadden currently resides in West Baltimore County, with her amazing daughter, Sharise.            



I was asked to write an entry on the education and activism, and I had the hardest time, attempting to start this wonderful article. What tone of voice I should use, should I add statistical data, and how special education is connected to the prison system. But, I changed my mind in the middle of my article, and wanted to discuss activism, and how teachers are activists.

                Activism seems to be taking a front seat lately, thanks to social media. Everyone seems to have an opinion about something, most of which are not grounded in any facts. We speak on the Freddie Gray death, the lack of convictions given to police for killing unarmed men of color, the murder of trans men and women, and the wonderful presidency of Number 45. We believe that activism is participating loudly, drawing attention to ourselves, and being infamous in certain circles. We find the Deray McKessons, the Shawn Kings, the Umar Johnsons, the Colin Kaepernicks, and the Shannon Sharpes intimidating, questioning whether we are doing “enough” for the children that we interact with daily. We fail to understand the full magnitude of the impact that we have.

                So, as an educator, how are we activists? First, teaching is not about testing and data: it is about liberating the mind. It goes beyond the behavioral management strategies; the system-approved curricula, filled with evidenced-based practices; and the framework, outlining the time spent on each standard. Teaching is giving the child the confidence, the skills, and the ability to expand their minds, and wanting to change the world for the better. Somehow, in the midst of testing and certifications, we forgot that. We forgot that a child is more than just a PARCC score, a HSA score, a DC-CAS score, or an MSA score. We try so hard to get great evaluations, we forget that a lot of our kids, the ones where school is a place to eat, feel loved, be safe, and feel secure, are not interested in data. They look to us to fulfill a need.

                As educator-activists, we are the frontline of defense. We cannot seek to educate children on empty stomachs. It is our duty to feed them. It is our duty to create the safe space, giving our students the ability to be children, even if it is only for 6 hours. Some teachers may disagree, but that is due to their personal experiences, and where the schools these teachers are employed. It is easy to ignore the role of an activist, when social injustice is not staring you in the face every day. As educators, we have to remember why we are in this field: we are here to liberate, to inspire. Every lesson should be to give our students, the ones without hope, hope. The chance that the world willingly takes away. We cannot be afraid to discuss social injustice in our classrooms. Let’s face it, we can easily make a lesson from anything. We are innovative!

                Activism is who is we are. Educators inspire, create leaders, and invoke change in the world. We have to get back to the essence of who we are. This is more than a paycheck. This is more than in IMPACT score. This is more than an evaluation. We literally are looking in the eyes of the next Barak Obama, Marcus Garvey, Steve Jobs, Jane Elliott, Nikola Tesla, and Phyliss Wheatley every single day. But, we only choose to inspire those from certain backgrounds. We have to get back to our roots, back to who we are. Without education, there is no activism.

What I learned when I stopped giving zeros

By Richard House

A passionate educator, Ricky House has spent the past four years in the classroom and is a graduate of the University Of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Education where he served as an Urban Fellow and Masters of Arts in Teaching Candidate. Upon completing his internship at Pittsburgh's Brashear High School, Ricky moved to Baltimore to begin his teaching career in the Anne Arundel County Public Schools teaching Eighth Grade social Studies and serving as a Team Leader at MacArthur Middle School on Fort Meade. One of the highlights of his time at MacArthur, was a lesson in which he has his students research the disparities the media shows between black teens and white teens. This was done in connection to a lesson on the Baltimore Uprising in April of 2015. Ricky is currently a seventh grade social studies teacher at Gunston Middle School in Arlington, Virginia where he manages the schools chapter of My Brothers Keeper where he continues to maintain his educational philosophy of rigor, relevance, and relationships as a way to achieve classroom success.

This past spring as co-lead teacher of the Social Studies department in my school, I challenged myself and the other teachers in my department to stop giving zeroes and replace them with forty percents. I did this for a number of reasons and having tried it for a marking period, I can honestly say I will never give zeroes again. As more school districts around the country shift towards “no zero policies”, educators should come to understand the benefits of these policies and how they can push students towards the mark of success.

I must be honest that when I started my teaching career, I was taught not to give zeros as an intern in the Pittsburgh Public Schools. The district had a “no zero” grading policy in place so it was that much easier for me to become accustomed to the idea when I began my teaching career in Maryland. My first year teaching a student could receive a grade no lower than a 40 which was equal to a not handed in and they received 50 if they did some portion of the assignment. Many teachers argue that these policies make excuses for children and show students that they can still get by, just by doing the minimum amount of work required. We need to stop for a minute and realize that giving zeros is simply not fair.

1. Most districts grade on a ten point scale: Most school districts as well as colleges and universities across the country grade on a ten point scale. That means that there is a ten point range for each letter grade from A - D except when it comes to failing grades. If you fail an assignment in most cases you can receive anywhere from a 0-59. This is simply not fair. Once you start receiving consistent grades below 40%, it becomes harder and harder to climb out of the hole that has be dug. Our goal as educators should ultimately be to help our students achieve success, not prevent them from rectifying mistakes.

2. No Grading Policies will help students confidence: After I stopped giving zeros in the spring of this year, I noticed that students who had been struggling to pass my class all year now realized that they had a chance to pass. Yes, many of these students had failed my class in previous marking period as a result of not completing assignments, but I noticed these same students were not motivated. In many cases, especially with middle schools, students tend to lose confidence the lower their grade sinks throughout a marking period. They get to a point where they think that the grade has sunk too low and they cannot recover. Policies like this help prevent that.

3.These policies focus on growth rather than mistakes: As educators we have got to get to a point where we realize that our job is to prepare our students for success and help them grow, not to punish them for their mistakes. No Zero Policies help measure a students growth over time which should always be the goal. Adolescents make mistakes and at this stage in their lives empathy and compassion from educators can go a long way. As educators we have to understand that we are not perfect and we cannot expect our students to be. Yes, we have to prepare them for a life that will not always be as generous and forgiving, but quite frankly giving a child a zero does not lower the bar in any way. Students who are not going to complete the work are still going to fail, but at the same time these same students will have the opportunity to recover without feeling like they’ve dug a hole to deep to recover.

While I understand that these policies will not be popular with all teachers, educators have always been willing to adapt to change and we must continue to do so. A 2016 Washington Post Article stated

“But many are critical of the shift, arguing that teachers are losing important tools to enforce diligence and prepare students for college and the workplace. They say that artificially boosting student grades can mask failure and push students through who don’t know the material they need to know to actually succeed.” (Washington Post 2016) .

Surely this is a worry of many educators, but no zero policies do not reward students for not doing work. A student who does no work throughout an entire marking period is still most likely to fail. Another question, we must ask ourselves as educators is “How is failing a student preparing them for college and the workforce?” If a student is consistently not handing in assignments, our goal should be to address the root cause of this problem and attempt to help them, get back on track, not punish them.

As educators we must be cognizant that not all of our students have the same learning style nor do they learn at the same pace. No Zero policies will truly help us transition from a grading system that focuses on punishment and one’s inability to recover after a series of mistakes to one focused on growth and is driven by a theme of equity. Finally as educators sometimes we become so focused on setting the highest of expectations, that we forget why we became teachers. A little empathy and compassion can go a long way.


It Starts with a Name

Heather Fischer lives and teaches in Southern California where she was born and raised. Her passion is to help students live abundant lives by igniting their passion for learning and demonstrating that there are unlimited possibilities when they take risks and challenge themselves. Heather is pursuing a Master of Teaching degree and a Curriculum, Instruction, and Publication Certificate from Biola University. She recently began creating TPT resources and blogging under the name “Fishin’ 4 Inspiration.” Heather loves to travel, explore the great outdoors, and spend time with her husband and dog.

  By Heather Fischer

          Who are you? The answer to this question can be quite daunting.  To define yourself by your age, relationship status, or even profession would seem insufficient. Most people would respond first with their name. Your name gives you an identity; it was given to you at birth and gives insight into your cultural, ethnic, and family background. Your name is sacred because it exclaims that you exist, are valuable, and have a voice.

            Our job as educators is to ensure that our students thrive academically. In order to do this, they must feel that they are loved, valued, and included within our classrooms. Knowing and using students’ names is fundamental in building strong, positive relationships within the classroom. Without it, we may be perceived as unapproachable, impersonal, or even uncaring. To demonstrate love and care for our students, we need to know and use our students’ names as soon as possible. It’s an effective way to build a sense of community and trust within our students.

            Additionally, the way in which we pronounce our students’ names is essential. When we pronounce our students’ names correctly, we not only honor our students and their cultural backgrounds, but we also demonstrate the importance of respecting diversity. Our students need to develop a global awareness in hopes that they will become competent within the 21st century.  

            My challenge to you is to know every student’s name and how to pronounce it correctly as quickly as possible. Imagine how valued our students would feel if we knew their names by the end of the first day, or even better, as they are walking through our doors for the first time! Do whatever it takes to know their names - ask their former teachers, take pictures and study them at home, or even call their families. We have a responsibility as educators to create an inclusive and caring classroom environment so that our students can thrive. Knowing their names and pronouncing them correctly is a powerful and effective way to show them that they are valuable and important.



Why is there still so much buzz about Growth Mindset?

By Savanna Flakes

Savanna Flakes, EdS, has taught a variety of subjects, grades and learners in Washington D.C., Pittsburgh and Virginia. Savanna is an education consultant specializing in inclusion, special education, and differentiated instruction for literacy and math. Her prior instructional leadership roles include Manager of Professional Learning, Master Educator, technology integration specialist and inclusion instructional specialist, coaching administrators and teachers on effective inclusive and instructional practices. Savanna has served as a professor in the American University School of Education and Health, and she presents nationally on topics such as differentiation, co-teaching, universal design for learning, and inclusion. As an educational consultant, Savanna works with school communities to build teacher leaders and effective instructional practices for students with exceptionalities. For more information, visit Inclusion For a Better Future.


Why is there still so much buzz about Growth Mindset?

The answer is simple. Without a Growth Mindset - us and our students will fail.  Helping our students to achieve their potential and motivating them to understand effective effort, persistence, and working hard to reach their goals is the central aim of our teaching. The research is abundantly clear, teacher’s expectations and mindset can set students up for success or failure and students who have a fixed mindset shut down more quickly and have self-defeating behaviors in the face of learning challenges. Growth Mindset isn’t a tool or a paradigm or a packaged prescriptive method, it is a philosophy.  Growth Mindset describe the underlying beliefs people have about learning and intelligence (Carol Dweck).

To concretely demonstrate we care about Growth Mindset and want to build resilient and expert learners that are determined to be successful we must include Growth Mindset in our planning. To support students in the transition of fixed mindset to growth mindset, we need to dedicate instructional time to teach students about Mindset and why it matters. What does malleable intelligence mean? What does a GM look and sound like?  Share this graphic with students, have conversations and role plays, let students assess their mindset and create action steps and goals, and instruct students to create their own personal anchor charts that they revisit throughout the school year. Here are some of my favorite Growth Mindset resources:


Videos on Mindset and Effort-

  1. What is it?

  2. Power of Yet

  3. Michael Jordan’s Successful Failure

Lesson Planning Resource-




  4. The Growth Mindset Coach: A Teacher's Month-by-Month Handbook for Empowering Students to Achieve


Concluding Words: A Growth Mindset is a journey, not a one-stop fix or over-night transition, start at the beginning of the school year and revisit frequently. If you build a class community that is devoted to possessing a Growth Mindset, the sky is only a viewpoint.


Arizona limits ethnic studies. Circa 2010

By Meredith Chase-Mitchell

This post was written seven years ago when Arizona was on the front line amending their ethnic studies curriculum. At the time, as a woman of color who celebrates diversity- it was a shock to hear that a state would purposely modify education to NOT be inclusive. 
View below the incredible Dr. Michael Eric-Dyson on CNN debating the topic.

The more I read and hear about the racist policies in Arizona, the more grateful I am for the education and choices that I had. If you haven't heard this week the state of Arizona has proposed banning "ethnic studies" in public schools. How is this even possible in a country as diverse as ours, that one state doesn't find it important enough for us to learn about each other? I've never agreed that America is a "melting pot" , but implementing policy that is racist and can lead to more mis-education among races, is appalling.

In the summer of 1995 I took a class at Nassau Community College that changed me forever, African American History I. As a product of New York City and Long Island public schools, the most I learned about African American history in high school covered the basics, Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr. and Jackie Robinson. My mother thank goodness attempted to fill the gap with visits to the Schomburg Museum in Harlem, her own collection of Richard Wright and August Wilson novels, and assigning her own unique reading and research assignments over the weekend. Even with my mother’s intervention to supply me with knowledge on a subject my school district ignored, I longed for the debate and in depth discussion on all things related to ME.

That summer my personal library grew quickly with books on the Panther Party, speeches by Cornel West and even getting annoyed at social interactions that years before I never was concerned with. The 90's gave us the Crown Heights riot, the LA riots and the OJ Simpson trial and all of a sudden, being a young black women in America became my number one concern, what was my role and how would I survive? 1995 also marked the first time I was called a nigger- a life changing summer indeed. Enrolling in a class that taught me more than any class in High School ever did, gave birth to a new person. If it weren't for the glimpse of history, or as Arizona may classify it, ethnic studies, my eyes may have never been opened to a realm of information that is often ignored in the classroom. The opportunity to study additional cultures other than my own, wasn't just an asset for me, but also for my peers of other ethnicities.

Arizona's attempt to close the door on thought and education in a country comprised of individuals from all over the globe has to be one of the most detrimental policies ever drafted. I am both scared and curious to witness how we will all be affected by this policy.